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Simple repair of hand tractor
Walking tractor is portable and flexible, the use of a machine, agricultural production is a good helper. In order to improve the production efficiency, prolong the service life of tractor, in addition to the usual adhere to the correct use of methods of operation, must also be found fault and troubleshooting. Now, let us learn a little, fault diagnosis, and simple repair knowledge.
Expert introduction walking tractor by engine, transmission system, brake system, a walking system, electrical equipment, etc.. We can be simply divided into two parts of engine and chassis. Don't look at it more parts, trouble can hear and see, smell, touch to find.
One, difficult engine starting
Have a look first engine faults is how to remove the. Walking tractor is gradually feel difficult to start, until finally unable to start. Causes of difficult start with: low environment temperature, diesel engine, oil is illogical, improper adjustment, cylinder pressure is low.
Ambient temperature is too low when the environment temperature from - 15 degrees below, tractor park for a long time, complete engine cooling, not easy to start the engine. In this case, there are several ways to solve. First, the preheating oil. The oil pan oil release. Heating. Then the annotation. In second, the90 to95 degree water injection tank. Filled, open cylinder drain switch, so that the side bordered flow. Stay out of the water temperature reaches30 to40degrees, closed discharge switch.
Diesel when diesel label is not appropriate, viscosity is too big, not easy to flow, will make the oil pump suction into the oil, causing difficulty in starting. Several commonly used light diesel oil for seasons:0: the 4~ September, the south of the Yangtze River in winter. 10: the the Great Wall to the south of the Yangtze River to the south in winter, winter. 20: the the Great Wall to the north and northwest of winter, the Great Wall in the South and north of the Yellow River in winter. 35: the northeast and northwest of winter. 50: the northeast, North and northwest of cold region.
When the tractor has been in good condition, using the new injection of diesel engine starts difficulty, illustrate the filling of bad quality of diesel oil, impurity, or water. Therefore, filling in outdoor storage of diesel fuel, preferably of static discharge48 hours, moisture and impurity full precipitation, then use. The bottom of the fuel tank of diesel is best for other purposes.
Oil is not enough diesel engine into the cylinder, Sure Start difficulties. Its reason is oil. Oil barrier, first check the fuel tank switch is open. To remove the oil tank cover soil, maintain the through holes or vent pipe flow. Unscrew the oil injection pump screw on the gas, if the oil flow is clamped in the bubble, description of oil into the air, forming a gas barrier, enabling access to the fuel to reduce or stop, startup difficulties caused by the. Exclude oil in the air. The fastening of the oil pipe joint. Check the sealing situation of diesel oil filter cover. When unscrewing the oil injection pump bleed screw, rocking crank pump oil, feel great resistance, bleed screw is a small amount of oil, diesel filter is clogged. Should clean diesel filter.
Improper adjustment of engine engine after a period of use, vibration and wear, so fuel pump technical parameter changes. These changes, often cause difficulty in starting failure. At this time, you will need to adjust these parameters. Adjustment of fuel injection pump fuel supply advance angle, remove the nozzle end of the high-pressure pipe nut is loosened, the other end of the high pressure oil pipe nut, so that the tubing is placed horizontally, opening up. Hand throttle on the feed position. A rotating flywheel. The high pressure oil pipe full of diesel. Then slowly rotating flywheel. When the nozzle oil begins to rise, the oil supply line on the flywheel, and the water tank on the reticle alignment. Fuel supply advance angle should be 16~20 degrees.
If the line ahead or lag, should be adjusted. The adjustment of general use to increase or decrease the method of gasket. Increase shim, delaying injection, reduce gasket, timing advance. Adjustment to the reticle alignment. Mounted fuel injection pump should pay special attention to the plunger, adjusting arm should be embedded in the speed control lever in pot. This is a very important point. Checking method is, taking the oil ruler, with a finger touch the regulating arm. The hand throttle, adjusting arm should be readily throttle swing, you must reinstall.
Cylinder pressure is low when not open decompression mechanism, can easily turn the crankshaft of the diesel engine, and the inlet, exhaust pipe has the obvious" out, out" sound, indicating valve leakage. At this time, need to adjust the valve clearance. Adjustment, a rotating flywheel, the flywheel on the TDC line and the water tank on the reticle alignment. With a wrench and a screwdriver on the rocker arm locking nut and the adjusting screw, the feeler inserted valve rocker and measure. Screw the adjusting screw, the inlet valve clearance to 0.35mm to0.45 mm, the exhaust. Finally, tighten the lock nut. Valve leakage is another cause of valve closing. This failure, need to repair station, grinding valves and valve seats. Cylinder pressure is low for another reason, is the cylinder wear. The approach is examined in the ventilation pipe, add a little oil. And shake the car starting. If you feel pressure, description of piston ring or cylinder liner wear serious, adverse compression cylinder. Encounter this kind of fault, also need to repair station, replacing piston ring and cylinder liner.
In two, abnormal engine exhaust
Engine exhaust smoke when the engine is in the mixture can not complete combustion, will be a row of black smoke. At this time, first to lighten the load of the tractor. If the smoke becomes shallow, shows a row of black smoke is the cause of the excessive load, reduce the load can be. If reduce the load, to a row of black smoke, then, need to clear the air filter on the removal of dust, exhaust pipe of coke and oil. If the cleaning air filter and the exhaust pipe, the engine exhaust smoke. Need to check the fuel pump fuel injection timing is too late. If too late, adjustment of fuel injection pump timing. After adjusting the fuel injection timing can not rule out black smoke, should be cleaning the fuel injector. Cleaning the fuel injectors, remove the injector nozzle, clearance around the oil and carbon deposit. High pressure tubing rotary to one side, install the fuel injectors. Shake the crankshaft, observation of injection of. If a drop of oil, deflection, or atomization, should adjust injection pressure. Adjustment, remove the injector cap with a screwdriver, the pressure adjusting screw. Until the injection was normal in fog, above all use, still can not rule out black smoke, is a cylinder wear serious, leading to a cylinder pressure is insufficient. In this case, should be to repair replacement or cylinder piston ring.
Engine exhaust smoke when oil fleeing into the combustion chamber, will take the blue smoke. First, check the oil pan oil quantity. If the cap is more, should give off excess oil. Check the air filter oil pan oil. Oil should not be more than oil ring groove. If too much, should be released inside the oil pan oil storage. The oil pan and oil storage tray of the oil volume of normal, still can not rule out the exhaust smoke, for engine wear serious, should go to repair station, engine overhaul.
Engine exhaust white smoke when the fuel in the water or poor combustion, will take the white smoke. First released in all diesel fuel tank. Check the water tank, if the cooling water at the same time the abnormally reduced, there may be damaged water leakage of cylinder. In this case, we should do further examination to repair station. If the cooling water has no obvious lack of, add new diesel. Start the engine, idle speed warm. Engine temperature, and then increasing the load, white smoke will disappear. We can also do the diagnosis. If the exhaust pipe exhaust white smoke is not continuous, but a description of the injector, drop of oil, poor atomization. It should be cleaning the fuel injector. If the exhaust pipe exhaust white smoke is a substantially continuous, at the same time the power of the engine is decreased, the exhaust gas temperature and cooling water temperature decrease. For the injection pressure is insufficient, the needle valve. Should adjust injection pressure.
Three engine overheating.
Overheating of the engine performance is, the cooling water in the water tank quickly boiling. Engine overheating, can from the following several aspects: a diagnosis of exclusion.
Water tank water tank inspections, when the cooling water is insufficient, the tractor to water source site, idling, until the water temperature is reduced, and then the cooling water. Cooling water should be added to the buoy rises to the highest position so far. Attention, overheating of the engine can not be hurried to add cold water, to prevent the fuselage cracked. The engine temperature is too high, can not be instantly flameout, avoid the piston in the cylinder. Water tank for water, but the engine temperature is too high, should clear the water tank external, internal and water in the water jacket silt sundries. The cleaning tank outside, water wetting water surface, and then with water from the water tank behind the forward flush. On the adhesion of debris, can use the brush cleaning. Do not use tools such as hard to pry blade, so as not to damage the tank. Cleaning water tank and the water jacket when first released, the old cooling water, tap water to fill the tank, start the engine running for 5 minutes after the release, with water from the debris. The water jacket of furring is excessive, remove the tank. The hydrochloric acid slowly into the water, stir, the preparation of 25% hydrochloric acid solution. The hydrochloric acid solution is injected into the water jacket inside the park,10 minutes, the furring dissolved off. From hydrochloric acid solution, washing with water. If too much scale, can be cleaned repeatedly.
Oil supply too late and combustion chamber deposit with cooling water and cleaning water tank, cannot exclude the engine overheating problem, should according to the method to check, adjust the fuel supply advance angle. Fuel supply advance angle without fault, you should get a repair station removing coke combustion chamber.
Four oil pressure is insufficient.
The diesel engine normally works, indicating valve red flag should be raised. If the rise is not high, or not rise, illustrate the oil pressure is insufficient. Can from the following several aspects: a diagnosis of exclusion.
The oil is too little pull oil ruler, check the engine oil level. Oil level should be two line between. If less than the lower limit, should complement the oil.
The oil is too thin engine starting at the beginning of, oil pressure is normal. But after a while it will appear to use the oil pressure drops quickly. Pull out the dipstick, oil volume normal. Finger twister, viscosity reduction. Careful observation, oil black, have small droplets, or smell of diesel fumes. At this time, must replace the oil. When replaced, while the heat release of old oil, choose the same type of oil.
Oil strainer clogging if the oil does not have a problem, you should check the oil pump front end of the filter is clogged. Check, remove the engine rear cover. Check whether the plug mesh. Use clean diesel or kerosene cleaning strainer. When cleaning, the screen cover remove spring ring, remove the filter, the internal and external cleaning strainer. In the opposite order installation oil filter.
We introduced the engine fault diagnosis and elimination. Next we introduce some common fault diagnosis and exclusion of chassis.
Five gear is difficult.
The clutch brake handle is pulled to the separation position, the gear lever, was shifting effortlessly, or hanging gear has a gear clash, or simply do not hang on the block. Causes and eliminating methods have the following kinds.
Clutch is not clear separation of the clutch is not clear. Excluded, to adjust the clutch clearance. The clutch brake handle back into the union position. The feeler into separate lever ball head and the separation between measurement of bearing. Gap should be0.4 ~0.7 mm. Three gap should be basically the same. If the gap does not meet the requirements, or the three gap is larger, should readjust. Clutch clearance requirements, and then check the clutch brake handle free travel. Clutch brake handle free travel for 25 ~30 mm.
Stroke does not accord with the requirement, be adjusted. Check the transmission rod fastening screw is loose. Fastening the gear lever connecting piece and a shift lever pin nut. Check whether the deformation of the gear lever. If the deformation correction should be performed to repair.
Clutch bearing is short of oil when the pull clutch brake handle, separating bearing issued a " sand, sand" abnormal sound, is generally isolated bearing is short of oil. To separate the bearing gas, first the external bearing sludge wipe clean, so that the bearing flexible rotation. Then use the machine oil to the bearing lubricating oil filling. If the separation bearing can not rotate, and the separation lever contact in a metal friction sound, release the clutch brake handle, the sound disappeared, usually bearing ablation damage. Clutch noise is another cause of clutch pressure plate bolts loose or clutch internal damage. Encountered such a situation should be to repair replacement station.
Six steering misalignment.
Tire usage time is not long, but more serious wear. Should check the tire pressure, high and low will accelerate the tire wear. Standard value should be two kg per square centimeter. Inflated or deflated, so that the tire reaches the standard value. About tire uneven wear, can replace the use of. Need of replacement tires, asked about tire replacement at the same time, to ensure the consistent on both sides of tire traction. But must pay attention to the direction of tire tread. From the tractor front, pattern should be a" eight", or" one" word, not anti-loaded. Regular diesel, oil, or other chemical solvent viscosity on the tyre, exacerbate tire tread damage, should be kept clean.
Steering rod longer or shorter driving, steering handle of walking tractor pull, not steering or turning difficult, because the steering rod is too long or short. Inspection and adjustment of steering tie rod length. Steering rod length of the standard is: hold the steering handle, when the steering handle and the plastic handle between2~ 4cm distance, steering operation should be accurate. If the distance is too large, should be adjusted longer steering rod, if the distance is too small, we should adjust the short steering tie rod. Check the steering arm hinge if excessive wear. Wear is too large to be replaced. Check the steering fork shaft, steering cover matching with the inner hole is serious wear. If you wear, must be replaced.
The seven brake misalignment.
Running, if the handle is not down the location of the separation, as the braking action, description of braking premature. If the handle is separated from the position back not a braking effect, illustrate the brake too late. Check, an operating handle from a combination of position to the separation position. Support the tractor, a rotating tire, the tire can rotate freely. An operating handle is separated from the position to the braking position. Forced rotating tires, tires should not rotate, and reliable braking. If you do not meet the above requirements, loosen the lock nut. Rotating rod connecting fork. Then tighten the lock nut.
Above, we study the walking tractor fault diagnosis and elimination. I believe that through your efforts and practice, will soon be correct, low cost, safe use of walking tractor, the tractor in production to play a more active role.

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